Desain Rumah Minimalis Modern 2 Lantai

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Jasa desain ruang makan dan dapur minimalis

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JASA DESAIN AUTOCAD SOLIDWORKS 3DMAX: Desain View 3D Renovasi Kamar Mandi yang Saya Suka Warna dan Modelnya

JASA DESAIN AUTOCAD SOLIDWORKS 3DMAX: Desain View 3D Renovasi Kamar Mandi yang Saya Suka Warna dan Modelnya

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The Injection Molding Process and Machine


Injection molding is a forming process. Material (plastic, metal, ceramic, wax, etc)
is fed into a hopper which delivers it to the feed section of the barrel and screw.
The material is melted usually via a screw that melts or blends the material and
then pushes liquefied material (eg, plastic) into the mold, which forms the part.
The injection-molding industry is relatively young when compared to other
manufacturing processes, such as metals, wood, or cement. Although patented
in 1870 by Smith and Locke and 1872 by Hyatt, the first commercial plunger
machines were developed in the late 1920s and 1930s. Egan patented the reciprocating
screw in 1956. Since then the elements of the machine have stayed the
same but advances continue with the evolution of advanced computer controls, hydraulic
circuits, and computer numerically controlled (CNC) all electric presses.
There are several variations and extensions of injection molding within the industry
that provide unique capabilities to the process and in turn special properties
to parts. Virtually all share the common elements of the following:
(1) Material preparation: The plastic/metal/mixture may be cleaned, dried, colored,
blended, heated, cooled, or in some way readied for use in the machine.
This can be one resin, thermoplastic or thermoset, or combination of
base resin and additives. Additives include colors, metal particles, foaming
agents, antistatic agents, fillers, fibers, flow aids, stabilizers, antioxidants,
mold-release agents, binders, flame retardants, etc.
(2) Material, usually dried plastic granules, is fed (usually by gravity) into a
feed port or throat of a heating cylinder or barrel.
(3) Material melting and/or mixing, [usually thermoplastics via heat (heater
bands) and mechanical shear (flights of a screw shearing the plastic at
inside surface of a barrel wall)], preparing it to be pushed into the cavity:
As the screw rotates, it pumps plastic forward to prepare enough material
for injection. The injection unit, barrel, and screw are now something like
a syringe ready to inject fluid.
(4) Filling the cavity by pushing the material under pressure [7 to ∼414 MPa
(1000–60,000 psi)] into a mold cavity. The cavity sees less pressure, between
1.4 and 140 MPa (200–20,000 psi), because of large pressure losses as the
plastic travels the path to the part. This path includes the nozzle of the
injection-molding machine, the sprue (a tapered cone) that connects
the nozzle to the runner, the runner (usually a round channel), and the
gate or entryway to the part.
(5) The mold or tool that contains the cavity that forms the part and provides
heat to cure thermoset parts or cooling to set up or freeze thermoplastic
parts. Typically, the mold cools the molten plastic to a rigid or semirigid
form so that it can withstand the force of ejection (part removal) and retain
its shape. Not all of the energy to melt the plastic is removed by the mold.
Cooling continues after ejection and the part continues to shrink. Parts
made with certain plastics, ie, semicrystalline, may take 3 days to 6 weeks
to stabilize. Post-molding conditioning can be critical to achieve desired
performance, dimensional criteria, or flatness.
(6) The clamp which holds the mold halves together during filling and packing
the part with plastic.
(7) Part removal or an ejection mechanism. This occurs after the clamp opens,
separating the mold at the parting line into halves. The part is pushed
(ejected) out of the mold and drops to a box, conveyor belt, or is taken out
by a robot.


Fig. 3. Basic hydraulic (toggle clamp) injection-molding machine components. Illustration
by John W. Bozzelli & Rick J. Bujanowski.
Fig. 4. Toggle and hydraulic clamps. Illustrations by Rick J. Bujanowski & John W.
Bozzelli.
(8) A controller, usually a computer, that coordinates and controls the various
steps of the process and components of the machine.
Figure 3 depicts many of these components in a typical hydraulic injectionmolding
machine with a toggle clamp.





Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology.
Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
All rights reserved.



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INJECTION MOLDING

Introduction


Injection molding is an extensive global manufacturing process for making simple to intricate plastic, ceramic, and metal parts. Injection molding converts wax, thermoplastics, thermosets as well as powdered metals, and magnesium into thousands of products (1,2). Commercial processes and equipment have been developed  for a wide variety of materials, though the bulk of what is injection molded are thermoplastics. 

Applications appear limitless, from compact discs to jet plane canopies, to medical implants. Nearly all consumer products have some injection-molded components. In the year 2000 injection molding consumed approximately 32 wt% of all plastics sold worldwide, roughly 4.95 × 107 metric tons (3). This is second
to extrusion which consumed 36 wt% of all plastics sold worldwide. The United States consumes about 33% of the plastic sold worldwide. In the United States, the plastics industry ranks as the fourth largest after motor vehicles, petroleum refining, and automotive parts. Plastic processing and products continue to grow at a faster pace than the national average. This is in spite of the trend of the United States going toward an information and service industry and away from manufacturing. In the United States there are about 6000 molding shops, down from a high of about 8000 in the early 1990s. Consolidation continues as monitored
by the trade journals, for which web sites are listed (4–8). There are an estimated 80,000 injection presses in operation within the United States.

The injection-molding process provides low cost fabrication of large and small parts to precision tolerances. Many of these parts are nearly impossible to make in production volumes by other techniques. Injection molding can form parts as small as a cubic millimeter (micromolding), and parts as large as garbage dumpsters
and 1.2 × 2.4 m (4 × 8 ft) filter panels are in production. A wide range of injection-molding processing capability characterizes the industry. Quality and tolerances can be high if scientific principles are followed. Tolerances near 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) are difficult to achieve but are possible if concurrent engineering
is applied to certain parts. One of the strengths of injection molding over other plastic forming processes is that parts can have fine three-dimensional (3-D) details in their shape and surface finish. Typical nominal-wall thickness ranges from 0.5 to 6.4mm(0.020–0.250 in.); however, thickness of 0.08–50mm(0.003–2.0 in.) are also possible. Injection molding is the plastic processing method of choice for large quantities of identical parts. Quantities in the millions are possible with one or more molds that can form several parts at one time. The efficiency of this process has changed the quality of life for most Americans, especially low income households.


Properties of injection-molded parts can be unique. Given a metal or plastic’s typical properties, injection molding imparts some of its own. Because of flow patterns, molecular orientation, and other factors, molded part properties are often different than those of the base material. An example of the benefits of orientation is the “living hinge”, the flexible plastic hinge found on spice, shampoo, and dental floss containers. Properties of injection-molded parts can be flexible or stiff, soft or hard, tough or brittle, clear or opaque, specific chemically resistant and flame retardant. Parts can be tinted, colored, plated with various metals, and recycled.





Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology.
Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
All rights reserved.



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The main parts of the Machines Injection are

a) Clamping unit, serves to place, open to close, operate and hold mold / mold during the injection process lasts.
b) Injection units, consisting of several parts of machines needed for: charging, injection material into mold / molds.
c) Power unit that provides equipment and power supply units for clamping and injection.
d) Control unit, the equipment that regulates the temperature, pressure and time.



Molding
Molding is a tool or mold to produce a product by injection.
Broadly divided into two parts molding.
- Core
- That is where the products will be dropped from this section molding.On stick product after injection process. At the time of mold open product remains on the core, after it was dropped with the new ejector or stripper or deceptive wind.
- Mold consists of several systems
- Among others
- Ejector system
- System of a gradual or a combination ejector off-stripper
- System unscrewing
- System of a slide.
Mold is production on the machine must always be maintained, because the injection mold maintenance is something that is very important in the production process, so that it can minimize the damage that occurs during injection mold so as not to disrupt the production process
The treatment goal is the production of injection mold is:
-Reduce and prevent damage during production
-Reduce maintenance costs
-Maintaining production quality in order to keep good
-Ensure the achievement of production schedules.
Mold Treatment during production
Mold moving parts such as:
-Slider, ejector pins, etc. must always be clean and grease to keep slippery. but grease one side can close the venting holes or gaps in provision of grease mold.therefore should not inhibit in area outside venting gap.

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